The Temple of Venus in Pompeii is an ancient Roman structure dedicated to Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty, who was considered the patroness of the city. Situated in a commanding position in the southwestern part of Pompeii, near the Porta Marina, the temple offered visitors arriving by sea one of their first views of the city, symbolizing Venus’s protective embrace over Pompeii.
The construction of the Temple of Venus is believed to have been initiated around the 2nd century BC, with renovations and enhancements made over the following centuries, especially during the reign of the Emperor Augustus, who associated himself with Venus. The choice of Venus as the deity for this grand temple reflects Pompeii’s location by the sea and the importance of maritime trade to the city's prosperity. Venus’s role as a symbol of divine favor and protection was pivotal to the city's identity and its inhabitants' sense of security.